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International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences (IJAHSS) Volume 1 Issue 2 ǁ September HOW COULD FOREIGN TEACHERS IN TURKEY PRONOUNCE THEIR TURKISH STUDENTS NAMES CORRECTLY
International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences (IJAHSS) Volume 1 Issue 2 ǁ September HOW COULD FOREIGN TEACHERS IN TURKEY PRONOUNCE THEIR TURKISH STUDENTS NAMES CORRECTLY Assist. Prof. Dr. Metin Yurtbaşı Bayburt University, ELT Department, Bayburt, Turkey ABSTRACT: Most of us have read Dale Carnegie s classic How to make friends and influence people in which he reveals the secret of human psychology: giving people the feeling of importance that they seek. He claims in that work that people feel more friendly toward those who allows them this feeling by caring about them and showing this by calling them by their names. He explains the reason for this by the age-old motto the sweetest music to anyone s ears is the sound of their own names. Likewise in Turkey, young students love best those teachers who call them by their names, and tend to remain indifferent to those who are aloof. Most foreign-born teachers who teach English in Turkish schools, although aware of the importance of communicating for better education, fail to grasp this missing link to their students hearts by not pronouncing their students names properly. Considering that Turkish is a difficult language to learn, they simply get by in their own particular mispronunciation or even worse by ridiculously nicknaming them. This practice naturally hurt their students feelings, and causes negative consequences in the learning performance. To avoid this, it is suggested that such foreign-born teachers, not familiar with the Turkish language, should first consider that their students names are part of their individual and cultural identity and they expect their teachers care for themselves as much as their names. If such teachers take some effort to learn the phonemic and stress features of the students mother tongue, i.e. Turkish, and apply those principles on their students names, they will make them feel happier and more comfortable with their relationship and motivate them in their performance. Names are specially selected in Turkey before given to children because of the valuable meanings they bear, and children are expected to live up to them throughout their lives. So it is natural that little ones at school also expect their teachers to respect their names. A case of mispronouncing their names or nicknaming them would only belittling their self-esteem and cause them react in their own way. So this paper presents to such teachers a special opportunity to review the basic Turkish pronunciation guide the vowels, their soft and hard variants, combinations, the consonants, their clusters and especially primary and secondary stress patters with many examples. A listing of about 1000 most common Turkish boys and girls names with their meanings and IPA transcriptions are also given to help them be aware of such names and their significance for their students. After studying and practicing on them teachers will see for themselves the difference it makes for their relationship and the motivation this practice makes on their performance. Key words: names, phonemic system, speech, communication International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences V 1 I 2 58 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRONOUNCING STUDENTS NAMES CORRECTLY One of the most significant things we do to interact with other people every day is using their names. It is therefore absolutely crucial for any successful relationship with our acqauintances to get their name right. It is especially important for teachers to remember their students names and call them by these as often as possible (Waxle, 2016). Names are a very personal thing, they are ours for our whole life. They are given to us at our birth by our parents, and are our unique identifier among siblings, relatives or friends. Even if people may not appear to take it personally when we forget or wrong their name, they obviously expect better from us to bind them to us in friendship. If we keep mispronouncing others names, this shows a lack of effort on our part to pay them due respect (Mitchell, 2016). This is in fact quite an inexcusible and rude behavior. On the other hand it is considered a flattery to ask them to help us correct our pronunciation when we mispronunce them by saying Did I say your name right? (Pitlane, 2016). Difficult or unusual names are no exception for that. Trying to excuse ourselves simply by saying I m not familiar with your name, please excuse me for my mispronunciation is not enough and in fact that is totally unacceptable (English, 2016). We need to change such an attitude if we have it at once and remedy it as soon as possible. At school a student s name is part of his cultural identity; so a whole culture and its specific elements are embedded in that name. It represents where he s from, his culture, his ethnicity and even his ancestry (Kottak, 2003). When a teacher respect his student s name and how it is said, he gives him a message of whether he cares or not about its bearer. Students who are new in an environment are naturally nervous for having left behind their brothers, sisters, parents, grandparents and other family members, school friends, and their teachers should not also take their name away by calling them differently. The issue of calling students names correctly goes beyond merely pronouncing certain words properly or not. This practice is rooted in cultures unfamiliar to the speaker. Therefore it is worth the effort to get the student s name right, whatever it is that they prefer to be called. It is not only mispronouncing the student s names, but it is the issue of calling them something that was not their preference. In the United States Take My Name, My Identity campaign supports pronouncing students names correctly and value diversity as an important factor (Take My Name, 2016). This campaign is backed by the National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE). According to Yee Wan, President of NABE, mispronouncing a student s name truly negates his or her identity, which, in turn, can hinder academic progress (Nabe, 2016). Communication with people from other cultures is a 21st-century skill. Respecting a person s name and identity is key to effective communication. The author of the EdWeek blog claims that Mispronouncing students names is a slight that can cut deep. (Education Week, 2016) Thus teachers and school personnel should be very careful about how kids feel about their names and identity, and make special arrangements to make them feel comfortable on this matter. International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences V 1 I 2 59 2. TRADITIONAL METHODS TO LEARN FOREIGN NAMES CORRECTLY Once an awareness is established about the importance of learning and pronouncing students names correctly, the most convenient methods could also be investigated until the best one is found. Teachers traditionally try many different ways to remember their students names. One of them is to write their names on small pieces of paper or in their cell phones so that they can practice them. They can also write their names phonetically showing special signs for sounds and syllable stresses. School authorities also help teachers be acquainted with local names and how they should be said. When students see that their teachers are trying to learn their names, they become happy and responsive to them by their involvement in the learning process. Students are also asked to pledge to learn and pronounce one another s name correctly (Hermann, 2016). When teachers meet with their students the first time at school, they try to stick their names into their minds through association with somebody or something they already know. If the student has a difficult or unusual name, they verify that they heard the name correctly with that student himself. Then the teacher repeats the name back to the student, asking him if he has pronounced it correctly. If the student indicates that it s not correct, or slightly off, he asks him to spell it or write it down (Mitchell, 2016). The teacher then visualizes the name, and asks the student to say it again as he tries to memorizes it. If the name is a long one, it is advisable to break the name down into individual meaningful elements and syllables when necessary. Another tactic is to think of a word that rhymes with the name. The one syllable Turkish name Can rhyming with the English John could very well be associated with one another and it can easily be committed to memory, as well as the Turkish names Tayfun [taɪ fʊn] and Aylin [aɪ lɪn], both existing in English but with longer secondary syllable vowels (i.e. Typhoon [taɪ fuːn] and Eileen [aɪ liːn]). The responsibility of name learning shouldn t necessarily be on the person with the difficult or unusual name, it should be on the people learning the name; the teacher should figure out how to learn to say it right. Once the teacher gets a grip on his students name, he makes sure to repeat it in a conversation to help his memory retain it or practice it after the student has walked away (Fleck, 2016). If the teacher has a friend with whom the student doesn t know, he can introduce the two and use this as another opportunity to practice the name. The teacher also pronounces the name intentionally wrong and ask the student or his friend to correct it. Asking the student to correct his way of pronuncing his name is always considered a nice gesture for him (Petsnick, 2016). Because this shows that his teacher is making an extra effort and is conscious of the importance of his student s name. Trying to learn is not enough, on its own, of course. Once the teacher has verified how to say the name, he needs to go ahead and practice it by calling the student by that name every now and then for practice (ibid). It is good to remember that the third of the 10 commandments of human relations states that by calling people by their name we would be offering music to their ears. When foreign children go to the UK or the United States to study sometimes their parents have them registered with an Anglicized name to accommodate English speakers. Thankfully this is not always the case with everyone and some locals even appreciate an International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences V 1 I 2 60 international environment for their own children to grow with and learn the importance of pronouncing different individual names in real setting. Sometimes students with difficult names even correct their own teachers and friends when they mispronounce their names, but in most cases they soon give up (Quora-2, 2016). The best way for a teacher to get his students names right is to just ask them to practice and set a model for being a lifelong student himself. If a teacher has hundreds of names to learn, he gets systematic (Gonzalez, 2014). Sometimes by carrying around a clipboard with all the names he needs to say, he starts checking in with kids in the cafeteria, in the halls, in the stands at a basketball game. The president of the National Association for Bilingual Education, Wan, says: The best way for teachers to learn how to pronounce names is to talk to the student by calling their names with a greeting, to connect with them and with the parents (Mitchell-1, 2016). That personal connection makes the student and their family feel welcome in the school. Some observers state that it is in fact not the difficulty that is the issue, it is the people s attitudes when they come across a difficult name. (Mitchell-2, 2016) The nightmare for the students are those teachers who laugh at their name and pronounce them wrong or suggest them another name or simply nickname them and thus belittling them. They say: I just can't pronounce this name; you ve got one of those unpronounceable names, so I'm going to call you a nickname, (Quora-1, 2016) Such teachers insist on calling their students by those names for the rest of the year. Their helpless students have realy hard time with them who make life quite unpleasant for them. One observer says Of course nobody can pronounce every name because nobody speaks every language, but the problem arises when teachers do not make try (Mitchell, 2016). While ideally teachers should make an effort to pronounce students' names correctly, one cannot realistically expect them to know every name from every language (ibid). To conclude, students do not get upset over mispronunciations of their teachers; they only get upset over their not making an effort to learn to pronounce them well. If a teacher makes an honest effort to say his students name to his liking, then it is considered by him most welcome. 3. LEARNING TO PRONOUNCE TURKISH NAMES THROUGH IPA TRANSCRIPTION Having gone through the importance of foreign-born teachers proper pronunciation of their Turkish students names and some methods they try to learn them, now let us introduce a more scholarly approach to solve the problem. Linguists, rather phoneticians have been using a particular system called the IPA which is composed of the International Phonetic Association symbols to show individual phonemic features to refer to the sound variants existing in all languages. Such symbols are shown on special transcriptions for sound-units and suprasegmental markings for stress, linking and pauses. The same symbols used in English and other European languages are used for the Turkish phonetic transcription as well. This paper presents the systematic outline of the Turkish sound system covering first the segments (vowels and consonants) and then suprasegmentals (stress, linking, juncture fetures) in special symbols and marks. International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences V 1 I 2 61 After a detailed explanation with plenty of samples, a listing of 1000 boys and girls names are presented with their IPA transcription and their literal meanings (Yurtbaşı, 2007). 4. OUTLINE OF TURKISH PHONETICS 4.1 LETTERS LETTERS AND THE SOUNDS THEY REPRESENT A alık talan tırnak ; malum armağan tane ; kaymak kaytan kaynana ; başlayan ağlayacak alacak saklayamam kollayan ; olacak ; ağı ağızlık yağışlı bağışlamak dağıtmak ağırlamak çağırmak ; aya arayacak kapayacak ağlayacak B barış beyaz ; broşür bravo C pencere tencere ceviz ; Necla secde ; cz eczane Ç çeşit çetin çimen çabalamak ; güçlük içtim D direk dere dağ ad adlandırılmak düşünmek E gelişme esnek elek kendisi ; memur tesir tesis ; eğ eğlenmek ; ey meyletmek ; eye görmeyecek bekliyecek ; söyleyemem görecek ; verecek F fırsat fatih fırlatmak kaftan ; fr Fransa Fransız G girgin Gelibolu gr greyfurt gramer gırtlak Ğ iğde değmek dağ uğur kuğu uğurlamak tuğra H hediye ; hatırlamak hastalık kahve Ahmet kabahat daha hasta(ha)ne ecza(ha)ne ders(h)ane I ıtır katır tırnak İ izin ilik irkilmek iğde ; dakika J jandarma Japonya Jamaika jimnastik K kalın kadro ; kiremit kedi kemik krem kral kristal ; raks iks L kalın Allah ; leylek limon ; ünlü M maydanoz makas N neden, nasıl ; onbaşı onbeş sonbahar İstanbul ; ng ping pong nk Ankara ; ny Konya ; yanlış karanlık O ordu sokak ; ov kova ; oğlak doğmak ; oy oynamak oymak toynak Ö ördek ölmek ; öğ öğretmen öğrenmek ; öğüt öğürmek ; öy böyle şöyle P pırasa Portekiz öpmek International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences V 1 I 2 62 R rende reçine ; bir daha, bir anda bir dakika bir takım ; geliyor mu beni seviyor mu S savaş seçmek sevmek Ş şişe şaşırmak T tartı taşımak ; Trabzon tren tramvay ; rastlamak astsubay çiftçi çiftlik çiftçilik U Urfa umut ; uğ uğramak uğultu tuğla ; duymak Ü ütü üzüntü ünlü üzüm üğ düğme ; üy yürüyecek V vakit vadi Y yosun Yalova yelkovan ; öyle böyle şöyle Z zarf zeytin zil ; zs tuzsuz yatsı yazsın gelmezse düzse gözsüz UNPRONOUNCED LETTERS ğ = tuğra kuğu uğurlamak ; h = hasta(ha)ne ecza(ha)ne kahve feshetmek ders(h)ane Ahmet meyhane cumhuriyet kumarhane kabahat daha ; r = bir daha bir anda bir dakika bir takım geliyor mu beni seviyor mu ; i = dakika ; t = rastlamak astsubay çiftçi çiftlik çiftlik üstgeçit rastgele 4.2 SEGMENTALS VOWELS (back, unrounded, wide, short vowel (dorsal): a Eng cut Fr apparat Germ Nacht alık abajur abla adamak basamak basınç kasnak lamba manda takunya tırnak zaman abes acaba halbuki sempatik hükümdar vagon (front, unrounded, wide, short vowel): e Eng kettle Fr mélodie Germ Nest esnek abes adaletsiz adres cezve esnek elek ender engel esmek espri feshetmek gelişme kelime kendisi neden pervane zeki Türkçe İngilizce metin hediye abide kifayetsiz kösele litre (back, unrounded, narrow, short vowel, similar to schwa ): ı Eng colour Fr premier Germ Beruf ıtır acındırmak açı açık açıkça atılgan atlıkarınca aydınlık baldız usandırıcı basımevi baskın bayındır bıçak kıvranmak kıyafet mızrak pısırık ; a = başlayan alacak saklayamam kollayan (front, unrounded, narrow, short vowel): i Eng ship Fr difficile Germ Licht izin çelik çizmek dergi dikey ilik irkilmek ikinci izin kireç kraliçe meyhaneci International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences V 1 I 2 63 çizim resim sicim sindirim tilki inek inilti iniş inkışaf insanoğlu intikam iptal iri kiraz limon mine zincirleme ; e = verecek söyleyemem (back, rounded, wide short vowel): o Eng hot Fr voler Germ Koch Ordu ahtapot boş bozuk ordu onur konu konuk moruk nokta sokak somun yok zorunlu oran ondalık onay omurga orkide politika polis rol roket sokak tokat Tokat (front, rounded, wide long vowel): ö = Eng bird AmE Fr neuf Germ Töchter ördek amatör atölye başörtüsü böcek bölmek bölünmek çöp çöpçatan editör göl ölmek ördek öküz söndürmek göstermek vantilatör üstünkörü tümör törpülemek törpü tökezlemek (back, rounded, narrow, short vowel): u = Eng put Fr tout Germ Brust Urfa başvurmak bigudi billur blucin bluz Bodrum bolluk borçlu boşluk boru buçuk bunamak bununla kupkuru kurtulmak musluk Tuna turşu ukala ulak ulaşım ulaşmak unlamak umut sucu kurna zurna kuru turfanda duru çukur burun abajur abluka kabuk konuşmak ağustos ahududu akarsu doğru bozuk alaturka ampul anayurt kullanmak arabulucu arabozucu armut arzu arzulamak bozulmak vapur anaokulu yukarı duygu bozuk avuntu Avusturya Avustralya ; a = olacak (front, rounded, narrow open, short vowel): ü = Fr salut Germ günstig ütü dünya akü böbürlenmek kültür mütemadiyen pürüz tüketici tüfek tükürük tüp Türk tütsü tütüncü uvertür ücra üçüz üçkağıtçı üçüncü ülkü üflemek ümit ümitli ünlü Ürdünlü üstünkörü ütü ütücü üzücü üzüntü üzüntülü üye düşmek güreş böbürlenme böbürlenmek bölük bölüm bölünmek bölüşmek broşür brüt bugünkü bugünlerde bugünlük büfe bükmek bükük bülbül bünye büro bürokrasi bürünmek sürmek mümkün büsbütün bütçe bütün düşmek dökük çöpü kömürü komünist kostüm kökünden köklü köksüz köprü köprücük köpüklü körlük kötü günler kötüleşmek kötülük kötürüm köylü kulübe üzüm ; e = görecek DIPHTHONGS Eng car Fr tard ağ = ağ ağlamak çağdaş çağlayan Çağlayan çağ çağdışı antikçağ çağcıl çağrı çağrılmak sağda sağduyu sağdıç sağlam sağlamak bağlamak sağlamlaştırmak International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences V 1 I 2 64 sağlıklı sağlıksız sağmak yağlamak yağmacılık yağlıboya yağmur yağmak rağmen ağrımak mağrur lağvetmek ağzına ağlatmak Ağrı ağrı sapasağlam yağlı çağla eskiçağ sağsalim sağ sağlıksız sağlı sollu rağbet rağmen kalınyağ mağlubiyet dağbayır otağ estağfurullah çağdaş rağmen bağlar çağla varoluşçuluk defa mana bina kira kaza ceza sadece fevkalade harikulade sade ziyade çare idare pare Bektaşi alim madem evladım münasebet adalet rezalet selamet ticaret ibaret hakaret cesaret işaret sayesinde gayet gayesiyle vilayete hikaye sanayii tayin aşağıya Eng bite Germ Leib ay = ay kaynak bayrak varsaymak yapay subay yarbay albay yatay kaymak aday alay kalay apayrı aykırı aybaşı aydın Aydın aygıt aykırı aylak aylık ayna aynen ayrıca aydınlanmak Dubai Nairobi payplayn paytak otoray Nusaybin Jamaika gaybubet naylon onay onaylı onaylamak paytak ayda kayda parayla yatay kaymakam kaynana hayretle aynı ayran ayda kaybetmiş lakayt Eng house Germ Frau au = raunt sauna av avlamak nakavt pertavsız pound kravl mukavva av Manavgat mart
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